NLO Crystals

/LiNbO3 crystal Lithium niobate

LiNbO3 crystal Lithium niobate

LiNbO3 is widely used as electro-optic modulators and Q-switches for Nd:YAG, Nd:YLF and Ti:Sapphire lasers as well as modulators for fiber optics.

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    Fuzhou, China
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Lithium niobate (LiNbO3, LN) is a multi-purpose material in photonics and optoelectronics fields. It features excellent nonlinear, electro-optic, and piezoelectric properties. it is widely used as electro-optic modulators and Q-switches for Nd:YAG, Nd:YLF and Ti:Sapphire lasers as well as modulators for fiber optics.

Main applications:

1) Electro-optic modulation and Q-switching

2) Optical parametric oscillators (OPO) pumped at 1064 nm

3) Quasi-phase-matched devices with periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN)


1) Broad transparency region from 420 nm to 5200 nm

2) High nonlinear, electro-optic and acousto-optic coefficients

3) Nonhygroscopic, mechanically, and chemically stable

Nonlinear properties of LiNBO3 crystal

NLO Coefficients

d33 = 34.4 pm/V
d31 = d15 = 5.95 pm/V
d22 = 3.07 pm/V

Effective NLO coefficients

deff =5.7 pm/V for frequency doubling 1300 nm;
deff =5.3 pm/V for OPO pumped at 1064 nm;
deff =17.6 pm/V for quasi-phase-matched structure.

Electro-Optic Coefficients

γT33 = 32 pm/V, γs33 = 31 pm/V,
γT31 = 10 pm/V, γs31 = 8.6 pm/V,
γT22 = 6.8 pm/V, γs22 = 3.4 pm/V,

Photorefractive Damage Threshold

50 MW/cm2 (10 ns, 1064 nm)

Surface Damage Threshold

300 MW/cm2 (10 ns, 1064 nm)

Physical properties of LiNBO3 crystal

Chemical Formula


Lattice Constant,A

a=b=5.148 Å, c=13.863 Å

Melting Point




Curie Temperature

~ 1140

Mohs Hardness


Thermal Expansion

a11 =15.4×10-6/K a33 =7.5×10-6/K

Thermal Conductivity, W/(m K) at 300 K


Refractive Indices

n0 =2.286 ne =2.203 @632.8nm

Nonlinear Optical Coefficients, p/m/V at 1064 nm

d31 = -4.5 d33 = -0.27 d22 = 2.1

Electro-Optical Coefficients, pm/V at 633nm

γT33 =31, γs 31=9, γs 22 =3.4

Transmittance Range Transmittance

420~ 5200nm >68% @632.8nm

The Sellmeier equations (λ: um)

n02(λ)=4.9048+0.11768/(λ2-0.04750)-0.027169×λ2 ne2(λ)=4.5820+0.099169/(λ2-0.04443)-0.021950×λ2

HGO offers LiNBO3 specifications:

Tolerance of cutting angle


Tolerance of dimension

Dimension+0/-0.1 mmL±0.1mm


λ/10 @ 632.8nm

Wavefront distortion

λ/8@ 632.8nm

Surface quality

10/5 per MIL-O-13830A





Clear Aperture:

> 90%


< 0.1 mm @ 45°


Upon customer request


AR/HR coating upon customer’s request


Gold/Chrome plated on X-faces

Damage Threshold

750MW/CM2 at 1064nm, TEM00, 10ns, 10Hz

Quality Warranty Period

One year under proper use

Why Choose HGO ?

HGO offers both pure Lithium niobate(LiNbO3, LN) and 5%MgO doped Lithium niobate (LiNbO3, LN) crystals for Q-switch with transverse E-O modulation,second harmonic generation (SHG), sum frequency generation (SFG), different frequency generation (DFG),or optical parametric generation (OPA). High quality of LN with 1/10 wave front distortion can be supplied by HGO.

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