Birefringent Crystals

/YVO4 crystal Yttrium Orthovanadate

YVO4 crystal Yttrium Orthovanadate

The Yttrium Orthovanadate (YVO4) is a positive uniaxial crystal grown with Czochralski method. It has good temperature stability and physical and mechanical properties. It is ideal for optical polarizing components because of its wide transparency range and large birefringence. It is an excellent synthetic substitute for Calcite (CaCO3) and Rutile (TiO2) crystals in many applications including fiber optic isolators and circulators, interleavers, beam displacers and other polarizing optics.

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    Fuzhou, China
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Yttrium Orthovanadate (YVO4) is ideal for optical polarizing components and in many applications including fiber optic isolators and circulators, interleavers, beam displacers and other polarizing optics.

Main applications:

1) Fiber-optic isolators

2) Beam displacers.

3) optical circulators

Comparison of basic properties betweenYVO4 and Other Birefringent Crystals.





Thermal Expansion (/)











Refractive Index
















Mohs Hardness










Transparency range





Basice properties of YVO4 crystal:

Transparency Range

High transmittance from 0.4 to 5μm

Crystal Symmetry

Zircon Tetragonal, space group D4h

Crystal Cell




Mohs Hardness


Hygroscopic Susceptibility


Thermal Expansion Coefficient

αa = 4.43×10-6/Kαc = 11.37 ×10-6/K

Thermal Conductivity Coefficient

//C: 5.23 W/m/K C: 5.10 W/m/K

Thermal Optical Coefficient

dna/dT = 8.5×10-6/Kdnc/dT = 3.0×10-6/K

Crystal Class

Positive uniaxial with no=na=nb, ne=nc

Refractive Indices, Birefringence
(Δn = ne- no)
and Walk-off Angle @ 45° (ρ)

no = 1.9929, ne = 2.2154, Δn = 0.2225, ρ= 6.04° at 630nm
no = 1.9500, ne = 2.1554, Δn = 0.2054, ρ= 5.72° at 1300nm
no = 1.9447, ne = 2.1486, Δn = 0.2039, ρ= 5.69° at 1550nm

Sellmeier Equationλ in μm

no2 = 3.77834 + 0.069736/(λ2 - 0.04724) - 0.0108133λ2
ne2 = 4.59905 + 0.110534/(λ2- 0.04813) - 0.0122676λ2

HGO offers NdYVO4 specifications:

Dimension Tolerance



λ/10 @ 632.8nm

Wavefront distortion

λ/4@ 632.8nm

Surface Quality

10/5 per MIL-O-13830B









Clear Aperture



AR/HR (IAD, EB, IBS) coating upon customer’s request

Damage Threshold

750MW/CM2 at 1064nm, TEM00, 10ns, 10Hz

Quality Warranty Period

One year under proper use

Why Choose HGO ?

HG OPTRONICS.,INC. has the ability to grow high purity YVO4 ( Un-doped Yttrium Orthovanadate) crystals. High quality of starting material is used for crystal growth and strict quality control is applied to our YVO4 absorption ,scattering loss, bulk loss , inclusions and all the other required processing specs which assures that each crystal from HGO will comply with customer’s specification and perform well in laser system. HGO has now completed a mass-production line and have strong ability to supply such crystals with large quantity in short time.

What is more, based on our advanced diffusion bonding technology, diffusion bonding composites of NdYVO4 and YVO4 are extremely useful and very popular for higher power Nd doped vanade based laser systems. High quality of diffusion bonding crystals NdYVO4 with YVO4 endcap are available from stock and also customization.

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